Sudan’s world heritage sites at Gebel Barkal and at Naptan Region Gebel comprise of five archaeological sites: Gebel Barkal, Kurru, Nuri, Sanam and Zuma, on both sides of the Nile which is considere...Read More
Ceylonese Chronicles and Pali texts remain as an isolated area for research works; scholars all over the world including scholars from Sri Lanka and India are not mindful of its contents in which valu...Read More
Spain is credited with around forty-six world heritage sites of Unesco; and this endows the scholars to be extra careful when different ancient names are cradled here with their peculiar relationshi...Read More
Scholars’ views on this world heritage site of Unesco in South Africa is solely responsible to open the flood gates of mistakes on origin of life, on evolution of life and forms the base of many aca...Read More
The Historic Town of Banská Štiavnica is located in the mountains of Štiavnické Vrchy which was earlier a dwelling site of Slavs, perhaps, under the King of Franz dynasty. This heritage site was a...Read More
Unesco’s St Kilda heritage site is situated off the coast of Hebrides on the west coast of Scotland, and comprises the islands of Hirta, Dun, Soay, and Boreray.
The difficulty in accessing the remote archipelago where past human activities almost entirely centred upon Hirta, makes a loud voice on ancient migrants’ past identity through the abandoned houses, cleits and other remains across the archipelago.
According to Unesco, ‘Recent research indicates that the archipelago has been occupied on and off for over 4000 years…The time depth, preservation and completeness of the physical remains, provides a tangible and powerful link to the islands’ past history, its people and their way of life, a distinctive existence, shaped by the St Kildan’s response to the peculiar physical and geographic setting of the islands…..St Kilda is one of the major sites in the North Atlantic and Europe for seabirds with over 1,000,000 birds using the island. It is particularly important for gannets, puffins and fulmars. The feral Soay sheep are also an interesting rare breed of potential genetic resource significance….’.
St Kilda is known to Scottish Gaelic as Hiort; it is situated 40 miles west-north-west of North Uist, in the North Atlantic Ocean. It contains the westernmost islands of the Outer Hebrides. Hirta is the largest island. The islands are administratively under the Comhairle nan Eilean Siar local authority.
St Kilda—It means Kaludayi, the childhood friend of the Buddha who was born on the same day the Buddha was born; Buddha’s father Sudhodana sent Kaludayi to bring back the Buddha to Kapilavastu. It may mean Kadru, wife of Sage Kashyapa. But the name suggests that she belonged to the House of Kardam who is as same as Cadmus of the Greek.
Hebrides—or Hebri-des; it marks the settlement of the Hebrew people or the people of Hari-varsha of Indian puranas.
Hirta—It means ‘Herat’ or the seat of worship of Goddess Hera;
Dun—It marks the settlement of Dan or Danu people;…. Dùn does not mean “fort”, that it had been built in the far-distant past by the Fir-Bolg means Bir- Bagha. Bir means ‘brave’ and Bagha refers to the Bagha-munda dynasty; Bagha is as same as Phrygia.
The only “habitation” is Sean Taigh (old house), a natural cavern sometimes used as a shelter by the St Kildans when they were tending the sheep or catching birds. Sean ‘s root is in Senani, a group of shepherd people of ancient Magadha; it may refer to San, the sacred place in Sinai region; Taigh similarly refers to ancient ‘Tai’ or Triveni, the meeting place of Three Rivers’;
Soay—It means ancient ‘Sahya country’;….. Soay has a primitive hut known as Taigh Dugan (Dugan’s house). Dugan seems to mean either goddsss Durga or Durga means ‘fort’;
Boreray—-It means ‘Varahi’ deity; it marks the people of Bhur country;….. Boreray boasts the Cleitean MacPhàidein, a “cleit village” of three small bothies used regularly during fowling expeditions. Here too are the ruins of Taigh Stallar (the steward’s house), which was similar to the Amazon’s house in Gleann Mòr, but had more spaces. The local tradition said it was built by the “Man of the Rocks”, Cleitean’s root is either in ‘chaitya’ or in ‘kutira’ means ‘small house’ ; Mac means ‘Makka’ which means ‘moksha’ or salvation; Phaidein refers to the Vardhana country from where the dwellers of Boreray migrated. Vardhan were people of White Lotus region, and they were followers of Zion. Bothis means ‘Vasta’ or settlements’. It has different meanings which are identical with vati, bathua, pothia, Bhatia, bhatta, Bhutias, and Bharta.
Stae an Armin—-It seems to mean ‘stai’ means ‘permanent’; or it may mean ‘stri’ or ‘wife’; Armin means ‘Ramanaka’ people or ramani means ‘women’;
Stac Lee—It means ‘Loi’ or women of Loi country or Rai country.
Uist—-It means ‘Asta’ or “Eight’ country people’s settlement; it may mean ‘Asta’ or ‘Country of ‘Sun-Set-region’ that marks Temple of Sun Set;
Comhairle nan Eilean Siar—-Comhairle means ‘kumhara’ , the earthen pot makers; it may mean ‘kamara’, the iron pot maker; nan means ‘nana’, th priest; Comhairle nan refers to a sorcer from Kama region; Eilean Siar refers to deity Alan at Sri;
Scholars find meaning of Kilda attached to a Norse word, sunt kelda, meaning ‘sweet water’; some others do not see this as name of a saint. Whereas some other scholars think that the spring Tobar Childa refers to the name of a monk.
Sunt—-It means ‘santha’ , a pious man or a godly man; aman who leads a detached life.
Tobar—It refers to Mt Tob or Tab, the Heaven at See;
Childa—It means ‘Chola’ desha or Chila country which means the country of the Phoenix Bird.
Culdees—Chula-country or the Chaldeans
Hilta—-or harta means ‘ the protector’;
Skildar—-The Skythian or the Skanda people or the sardar (means ‘leader’) of the Skanda people;
Haskeir—-The root is in ‘Asclepius’ or the medicine people;
Mullach Sgar—Mallich-ghara means ‘House of Mallich’; the latter was sometimes refer to a port manager;
Village Bay cleitean—It means ‘Baya’ of the Village or a Sage of the Village;
The Isle of Irte(insula de Irte)—-
A medieval village lay near Tobar Childa—
Lady Grange’s House—
Mingulay or Miughalaigh is the second largest of the Bishop’s Isles in the Outer Hebrides of Scotland. Barra is close to it in the south; Skipsdale is a tiny cove and the only settlement of note is called ‘The Village(Biraja); Bagh na h-Aioneig on the western side is a deep cleft in the sae-cliffs at Builacraig. Mingulay has three large sea stacks: Arnamul, Lianamul, and Gunamul. Several outlaying islets including the twin rocks of Sron a Duin to the south-west, Geirum Mor and Geirum Beag to the south between Mingulay and Berneray, and Solon Mor, Solon Beag, Sgeirean nan Uibhein, Barnacle Rock and a smaller stack called The Red Bay, all to the north between Mingulay and Pabbay.
Mingulay or Miughalaigh —
Bagh na h-Aioneig—
Sron a Duin—
Sgeirean nan Uibhein—
The Red Bay—
Mingulay’s root is in Mangala, name of a palace where Asoka built after his conversion to Buddhism. It was then situated on the Setu bandha itself. Mongolia is identical with Mangulay; it also refers to deity Mangala that identifies the deity with Maa Dindima or Mother Dindima.
Scholars took it as being derived from the Old Norse word Mikil-ay, meaning ‘Big Island’; the names Miughalaigh and Miughlaigh is identical with Mughala or Moghal who identified themselves as a ruling class in 15th c A.D. They were followers of Moggallana or they me taken as descendant of Moggallana, the foremost disciple of the Buddha. The name Mewla refers to Mt Malaya or Malaba country, and it may mean Malla Country from which the name Mull has been derived. But Miuley is not Mewla; it means Mulla-garh, a historic place and an ancient kingdom near ancient Kapilavastu and Troy on the bank of the river Styx. Megaly pinpoints settlement of ancient Meghas who were a priest class people and were descendants of Sage Mogha, the Bodhisattva Indra, or the King of Heaven, or the Thunder God of Heaven.
Clan McNeil of Barra—
Crois an t-Suidheachain—
Kingdom of Isles—-
Burt of Lewis—
Root of Rona is in Rohana, name of a country whose people’s were known as Rana or Rona; it does not mean hraun-ay which marks Hiranya-khanda or the Country of Hiranya or Gold; it identifies Mt Hor; –ay refers to Ai and Ayira clan; the Old Norse meaning for hraun-ay as ‘rough island’, and ron for ‘seal’, and oy for ‘island’ shows ancient migrants’ geographical relationship with their homeland prior to the Great Flood.
Meaning of ‘North’ is confused; it identifies the ancient ‘Kapila’ or the Greek people’s settlements; the region from Rona to Skye marks the ancient people from Kapila; Rohan or Rona is also a title. Tabha refers to a sacred bathing ghat; it may mean the sacred meeting of three rivers in Kapila.
Metaphoric reference to ‘Island at the edge of the world’ in literary works of modern writers does not mean ancient Rome. This term also means ‘west’, and like the term ‘end of the world’ in other ancient works like the Bible.
The uninhabited island of Scarp in Outer Hebrides where all the men of the island would gather in the morning time to take up a decision for the ‘day’ means ‘sabha’ or ‘sarba’ or ‘assembly in the interest of people’.
The Iron Bridge heritage site of Unesco is located in Telford, Shropshire approximately 50 km north-west of Brimingham which includes five identifiable areas: Coalbrookdale, Ironbridge, Hay Brook Valley with Madeley, Jackfield and Coalport. They are enclosed by a common boundary and are linked with the River Severn.
According to Unesco, ‘It was in Coalbrookdale in 1709 that the Quaker Abraham Darby I developed the production technique of smelting iron with coke which began the great 18th century iron revolution…..The small community of Jackfield on the south bank of the River Severn was important for navigation, coal mining, clay production, and the manufacture of decorative tiles. Located at the eastern end of the property and on the north bank of the River Severn, industrialisation came to Coalport in the late 18th century and the area is remembered principally for the Coalport China Works. …’.
The River Severn is known to Welsh as Afon Hafren which discharges at Apperley, Gloucestershire. It rises on Plynlimon close to the Ceredigion/Powys border near Llanidloes, in the Cambrian Mountains of mid Wales. It flows through Shropshire, Worcestershire, and Gloucestershire with the county towns of Shrewsbury, Worcester, and Gloucester on its banks. Severn Estuary contains River Wye and Bristol Avon; tributaries of Severn are : the Yyrnwy, Tern, Teme, Warwickshire Avon, and Worcestershire Stour.
Scholars think that the name Severn has been derived from the Celtic ‘sabrinna’; some other marks its origin in samarina means ‘land of the summer fallow’; mythological identity of Sabrina finds this name as goddess of the River Severn.
River Severn—-River Subarna(same as Soan) means ‘gold carrying river’;
Afon Hafren —Hebron refers to the river Hiranybahu means ‘gold carrying river’ of Av or Avanti;
Apperley—Apalal Nage or the Serpent King
Gloucestershire—Gouri or Gaury kingdom; cester means ‘kshetra’ or ‘area; shire means ‘Sri’; this identifies gauri as a royal seat and was a part of ancient Sri-kshetra;
Plynlimon—Bir-Ramana from which the name ‘brahman’ has been originated marks the ancient Romans or the Ramanaka people;
Ceredigion—Gion(also Gina) or Jina or Zion of Cede country or Cetiya country; Cete was the royal seat of administration in Kosala kingdom as same as Caesarea; Cete is Crete of other texts.
Powys—Payar, or Pahar was known to ancient world as little Magadha;
Llanidloes—Alanda or Oland settlement;
Cambrian Mountains—-it means mountain of Campa or Kamboj mountain;
Wales—Uru or Ori or Ora people
Shropshire—or Shrop-shire; it means ‘Sobha’ or Sophia region; Sobha was name of the place or the forest where seat of worship of Zeus of Kashya stood on the bank of the Caspian Sea of Kasyapa or Kaspeira Sea..
Sabrinna—It marks the star ‘Srabana’ and the settlement of Sabara people; it may means ‘Saravana’;
Unesco’s scholarship claims that ‘The features of the Giant’s Causeway and Causeway Coast site and in particular the strata exposed in the cliff faces, have been key to shaping the understanding of the sequences of activity in the Earth’s geological history….the area is of global geological importance on the sea coast at the edge of the Antrim plateau in Northern Ireland. It is made up of some 40,000 massive black basalt columns sticking out of the sea. ….it shows that this striking landscape was caused by volcanic activity during the Tertiary, some 50-60 million years ago….’.
The name Giant here refers to ‘Antrim’ whose root is in Ananta, the Naga or the Serpent King who was subdued by Vishnu; its historical identity is linked with Anant tribe of ancient world who were considered as gold carrying ants by Alexnader’s historians; the Bible considers Ananta as Anakim, and other mythology took them as Anunaki or Anu people. The Bible considers Anu people as On tribe people. In the same geographical plain of the ‘inhabited world’. Anu people, according to Indian puranic tradition, were royal people. Some ancient texts have written them as Antyas; they were seen mainly on the bank of the river Ganges or the Gaza or Gaga area; others took them as settlelers on the bank of the river Hiranyabaha or the Gold carrying river or Soan or Sunamuhin river.
The heritage site thus marks the ancient Ananta tribe people who migrated and settled in the Antrim region.
Fioni mac Cumhaill giant—Bena Machha Kumbhar or Kumar or Kamara
Oonagh—-Naga or the Serpent Woman Oo or Yu or Yuna or Yona;
Fingal Cave—-Aingal or Anga country; it may refer to ancient Benga region;
Staffa Isle—it refers to ancient Mt Tab or Sobha region near Anga country; it is identical with staba means ‘prayer’;
Fomorians(Fomhoraigh)—-The Fomhoraigh did not belong to a race of supernatural beings as thought by some scholars; they were the ancient people of Bamara or Women of Coomari or Kumari island. They were dwelling in the neighbourhood of ancient Jerusalem near the biblical volcano.
Clochain na bhFomhoraigh—-It means ancient Kolchian people;
Unesco’s Durham Castle and Cathedral heritage site is related to the surrounding city and the wooded Wear Valley; the relics of three saints, Cuthbert, Bede, and Oswald hold the cultural memory of the community living close to the Wear Valley region. The cultural and religious traditions associated with the relics identify the original hometown of the migrants who first settled in this river valley.
According to Unesco, ‘These were essential both for the community of St. Cuthbert, who came to Durham in the tenth century in search of a safe base (having suffered periodic Viking raids over the course of several centuries), and for the Prince-Bishops of Durham, protectors of the turbulent English frontier… The property has remained continually in use as a place of worship, learning and residence. Durham Cathedral is a thriving religious institution with strong links to its surrounding community. ……Durham Cathedral was built between the late 11th and early 12th century to house the bodies of St. Cuthbert (634-687 AD) (the evangeliser of Northumbria) and the Venerable Bede (672/3-735 AD)….’.
St. Cuthbert—-Kuta-barta refers to the region of Mt Caucasus and the region of Coptus or the Bird Monastery region ; it also identifies Cushabarta/ Cushabatu/ Chaubarga/Kaibarta along with it.
Bede—-Bada or Bhadra or Verde or phade means ‘big and sacred’; it marks a group of follower known as Bhagavata and Baghamunda clan in Tigris(Bagha) region.
Oswald—Aswarohi of the Bible which means ‘the rider on the horse’; this identifies the Buddha and his renunciation taking the help of the horse Kanthaka and charioteer Chann.
Northumbria—-It refers to ancient Udumbara, known by a river, and a Tree in this name; the fruit of the fruit produced a kind of gold;
The river Wear means ‘Ur(Weer) ur Uru-vela River of Buddhist literature that identifies it with the history of the Great Flood; as Durham refers Dharma or Dharmaranya means ‘forest of Dharma’, Sunderland refers to ancient Sundar country where all its monks were called in one name ‘Sundara’ means ‘beautiful’; Name Alexander is a combination of two names ; Alika and Sundar. This was a place near Mrigdale or the Deer Park in Berenice(of the Periplus) or Banaras as same as Bernicia of King Ida. King Ida refers to the holy mountain of Ida connected with Zeus. The name Ida is as same as Mt Ita or Wutu or Ota of other ancient texts.
River Vedra(in the Roman Map of Britain)—-It refers to the river Bhadra as same as Kusha-Bhadra
River –gwair(Welsh)—-It refers to the River Gaury or Gauri
River wejr—-refers to the river vajra and it identifies river Niranjana or the river Zion, and Mt Zion
River we:dra—-This refers to the ancient region of Udra or Odra that identifies King Ida, and Eratosthenes ‘s Map’s Erdkarte country or Udaka-khanda region.
Wei—refers to Wi region;
River Wyre in Lancashire—It marks the ancient river Ayila river; it may mean Or-river as Lancashire means ancient Lanka who were the long-eared people or the Lambakanas.
River Browney—-It is identical with Barunei and Baruna, the Ocean God;
Croxdale—-Crox means ‘chaka’ or ‘chakra’ that refers to Dharma-chakra or the ‘Wheel of Law’ whose biblical identity is Catherine means ‘Chakra-bartin’;
Giles gate—It refers to Garuda Gate;
The river Wear flows out of Sunderland between Roker Pier and South Pier;
Roker Pier—Perhaps it refers to Akrua or Akura; this name identifies an Akkadian or a learned man and a charioteer from Arka or the Fertile Crescent region;
Pier—-It means ‘Vir’ or a –strong-man’ or a soldier or a man belonging to Bhur clan;
The San Antonio Missions heritage site of Unesco are a group of five frontier mission complexes situated along a 12.4-kilometer (7.7-mile) stretch of the San Antonio River basin in southern Texas. These complexes, according to Unesco, ‘were built in the early eighteenth century’ which collectively exhibit the ‘Spanish Crown’s efforts to colonize, evangelize and defend the northern frontier of New Spain’.
The heritage site interweaves two cultures: the Spanish and the Coahuiltecan’; the amalgamation of culture of the indigenous peoples of the region with these two cultures is not clear; the five missions were selected on the basis of their geographical unity in the San Antonio River Basin. Though seems to have been founded independently, the missions located at a distance of less than five kilometres from each other share a common past and a common historic origin. The heritage site complexes were never built, as suggested, with a common intention of defending themselves from an external attack.
The Mission Valero is called ‘the Alamo’; the urban components of the individual sites are linked to San Antonio. The name Valero and the name Alamo hold their common past where meaning of San and Antonio bear their respective historical identity through the many events of the ancient world. Valero is as same as Bolar or Beluva of Buddhist history; shrine of Madhava, the Bodhisattva, stands here as a neighbour to Ananta shrine. Ananta is name of a Naga or the Serpnet king which is known to history as Ant . He was a giant of the ancient world. Alamo refers to the goddess ‘Allo-Ma’ and this name is known to other texts as ‘Lo’; the natural human calling for this goddess at the time of danger is ‘Allo-Ma-Lo’; Alexander’s historians called this deity as ‘Allan’ or ‘Alan’. It is homonymous with Allah and El or Ayila or Ila or Illa. The fact that it is under the control of the ‘Daughters’ of Republic of Texas points to the original seat of worship of goddess in the Women’s Country. Mission San José , Missions Espada, Mission San Juan and Mission Rancho de las Cabras wre historical partners of ancient Cos people; the latter identifies the ancient Kosala kingdom which is as same as Caesarea of Roman civilization sitting on the bank of the river Cos or Kos whose other name was Kua or Kau, means ‘Crow’;
Mission San José—–It refers to Jasa or Yasa of Pali texts; Another mission in this name at Fremont refers to ancient Brahma-khanda region; while Baja means either ‘Braja’ or ‘vraja’, it defines the geographical situation of royal seat near ‘sur’ region means ‘the region of Sun near Mt Komedai(Comondu) and Mt Sumeru.
Missions Espada—It is ‘Spada’ of Indian literature which is identical with ‘Go-spada’, and ‘Puja-spada’; spade refers to the ‘sacredness of a place. San always means ‘Sana’ or the sacred place that identifies Sankisya/Sankisa of the Buddhist literature.
Missions San Juan—-Name Juan means ‘Zion’ or Jinn, and it means ‘a great teacher’; The other mission at Capistrano in California highlights the ancient migrants’ common geographical root; Capisrtrano refers to ancient Capisthala means ‘the Monkey Kingdom’. It also identifies ancient Coptus region which scholars mark with ancient Egypt. It means the Mt Caucasus region from where the migrants came from
Missions Rancho de las Cabras—it is synonymous with Ranchi country and its Yue-chi historic background; Cabras seems to mean ‘Cyprus’.
Mission Nuestra Senora de la Purisima Concepcion de Acuna—-Purisima refers to Phurisipada and its goddess Artemis sitting on the bank of the river Phasi.
Bexar—It is like Buxar; and refers to ancient Baku/Bacchhus Matamoros —It refers to ancient Mata-Moros or Mothers of Maurya dynasty in whose clan Mary was born; Coahuiltecan means ‘Kahala’ and its Achaean identity.