At the time when there is no paramount wheel-monarch, then the land of the Jambudvipa has four rulers:
South : Land of Elephants; breeding ground of elephants; title of the king is Gajapati.
West : Land of the Treasures; this land borders on the sea, and abounds in gems; here the king’s title is
Chhatrapati, or goes under an Umbrella.
North : Land of the Horses ; breeding ground of horses; here the king is called Asvapati
East : Land of Men; here kings’ title is Narapati.
The Arab travelers of the 9th c A.D. say that the Chinese gave the title of Narapati or Lord of Men to the emperor of China, and also to the king of Greece.
In the Land of Treasures people lived in walled–towns; and in the land of the Horses, people lived under large tents
In the land of the Elephants, different tribes wore different robes, with right shoulder bare, their hair was dome up in a ball on the top, and left undressed on the four sides. Here various tribes occupied different towns. Their houses were built stage over stage
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