Unesco’s Cahokia Mounds State Historic Site is located in Collinsville, Illinois near the city of St. Louis. Standing to the north of Mexico, this heritage site is at the centre of Mississippian culture (800–1350), which extended throughout the Mississippi Valley and the south-eastern United States.
According to Unesco, ‘It once covered more than 1,600 hectares and included some 120 mounds. Cahokia Mounds State Historic Site includes 51 platform, ridgetop, and conical mounds; residential, public, and specialized activity areas; and a section of reconstructed palisade, all of which together defined the limits and internal symmetry of the settlement. Dominating the community was Monks Mound, the largest prehistoric earthen structure in the New World. Constructed in fourteen stages, it covers six hectares and rises in four terraces to a height of 30 meters….’.
Name Cahokia has its root in ‘Koha’ or ‘Kuha’; it was name of one of the three sons of Levi. The Bible considers Kohathites, Gershonites, and Merarites as sons of Levi. The clan of Kohathites is subdivided into the descendants of Aaron(the priests) and the other Kohathires, the lesser Levites. This name Cahokia also identifies ‘Chahata’ of Buddhist literature where Monks gathered at the First Council of Monks after death of Buddha. Chih-kia means Chaka(Che-kie) people or Takka people of ancient Kosala kingdom.
The Monks Mound thus refers to Monks who migrated along with their followers from ancient Kosala kingdom.
Mississippi’s root is in ‘Missis’ and ‘sippi’; it means ‘matsya jibi’ means ‘living on fish’ and ‘trading in fishes’.
Source of the river Mississippi is at Lake Itasca or Lake Ita-sca which refers to ancient Mt Ita; or it may mean ancient Bitasta river.
Communities along the river:
Minneapolis-Saint Paul—Minnea refers to Manima or Anima, name of Almighty God; and –polis means ‘palli’ or village. St Paul’s native place is called in this name Palli.
St Louis—refers to Loi people;
Memphis—It means ‘Ambara’/’Ambica’ which refers to ‘Heaven’;
New Orleans—Orleans to Aornos or Rock Aornos which is as same as Aruna or City of Sun.
Baton Rouge—Bata of the Bible; it was the marshy place near Red Sea. ‘Bata’ means ‘road’ which refers to the road to ancient Egypt.
Quad Cities—Kuda/or Khirod Cities; it may mean cities of Udah/’Ad/Iudah people;
St Cloud—-refers to ancient seat of worship of Indra, Thunder and Cloud God, and King of Heaven at See/Si/Ci;
La Crosse—refers to Kusi/Sana Kusi/Cush/Kusha, son of Rama;
Cape Girardeau—Girardeau means ancient Garuda kingdom and Gauda people.
Dubuque—Dahuka/Dibakar means ‘sun’; it may mean settlement of worshipper of sun;
Bayou Teche—-the main course of the river in 2500B.C.;
Bayou Lafourche—main source in 200 A.D.
The Upper Mississippi River region:
St Croix River—-
Prairie du Chien—-
Des Moines River—
The Mississippi River is called the Lower Mississippi River from its confluence with the Ohio River to its mouth at the Gulf of Mexico,
Ohio at Cairo—-
Cahokia, the most largest and the complex Mississippian site, is considered as most influential cultural centre for its neighbours; the important finding of this region is that the maximum southern moon rise of this region is aligned with Rattlesnake Causeway;
Angel Mounts’ chiefdom in southern Indiana near Evansville bears Caborn-Welborn culture;
Kincaid Site is in southern Illinois across Ohio River from Paducah, Kentucky;
Moundville is located in Tuscaloosa in Alabama;
The Parkin Site is is in the province of Casqui
South Appalachian Mississippian:
This term, according to scholars, was first used by W.H.Holmes in 1903 which describes a regional ceramic style involving surface decorations applying a carved wooden paddle. Etowah and Ocmulgee are prominent among the South Appalachian settlements:
Appalachian—–Serpent King Appalal; Chian refers to ancient Chin country;
Etowah—-Mt Ita or Ota, and Woh country;
This includes eastern Oklahoma, western Arkansas, northeastern Lousiana, and northeastern Texas. It is not correct to link Caddo and Caddo language to first European contact. The Caddos were organised into three Confederacies: Hasinai, Kadohadacho, and Natchitoches.
Caddo—Kedar region/or Cadmus referring Mt Cadmus or Kumuda country;
Pawnee—Pabanee/refers to River Ganges;
Hasinai—Hastinapura/region of Hasti or Elephant people;it may refer to Asi river basin;
Kadohadacho—Kado means Kadua or muddy river(Hydraotes) region; hada, refers to Hade region near river Kadua;
Natchitoches—Nachiketa, a scriptural charater who refers to Jama, King od Death in Jerusalem.
Battle Mound—means the primordial mound of ancient Thebes; it was near ancient river Nile;
Red River Valley—refers to Erythraean Sea or the Red Sea region;
Louisiana—Loui-siana/Roi or Raisana/Luisinga
Anna—Anima region; God Annima;
Natchez Peoples—Nachiketa followers/ or worshippers of Jama;
Taensa Peoples—Tensa/Tyna or Tainos people;
Adena and Hopewell Culture Burial Mounds
Adena and Hopewell Culture Burial Mounds(name of the location in the parentheses) identify the migrants from the ancient Aden and Hupian or Appian regions. While Aden’s geographical identity is as same as the later day Odantapuri of ancient history, Hupian people were as same as the people of Alsanda or the people of ancient Alexandria.
Bynum Mound and Village Site(Chickasaw County Mississippi)—
Carl Potter Mound(Champaign County Ohio)—
Conus Mound(Marietta Earthworks, Marietta, Ohio)—
Criel Mound(South Charleston, West Virginia)—
Crook Mound(La Salle Parish Louisiana)—
Dunns Pond Mound(Logan County Ohio)—
Grave Creeks Mound(Moundsville West Virginia)—
Grand Gulf Mound(Claiborne County, Mississippi)—
Indian Mounds Regional Park(Saint Paul, Minnesota)—
Miamisburg Mound(Miamisburg, Ohio)—
Mound City(Chillicothe, Ohio)—
Pinson Mound(Madison County, Tennessee)—
Reservoir Stone Mound(Licking County, Ohio)—
Cahokia Mound(Collinsville, Cahokia)—
Castalian Springs Mound2(Sumner County, Tennessee)—
Craig Mound(Spiro Mounds, Le Flore County, Oklahome)—
George C. Davis Mound C(Caddoan Mounds, Cherokee County, Texas)—
Etowah Mound C(Etowah Mounds, Cartersville, Georgia)—
Fatherland Site Mound C(Grand Village of the Natchez, Mississippi)—
Gahagan Mound B(Red River Parish, Louisiana)—
Mangum Mound(Claiborne County, Mississippi)—
Nacoochee Mound(White County, Georgia)—
Nodena Site Mound C(Mississippi County, Arkansas)—
Pope County Mound 2(Kincaid Site, Pope County, Illinois)—
Shiloh MoundsC(Hardin County, Tennessee)—