On Yellowstone National Park heritage site of USA, Unesco says, ‘Yellowstone is one of the world’s foremost sites for the study and appreciation of the evolutionary history of the earth. The park has a globally unparalleled assemblage of surficial geothermal activity, thousands of hot springs, mudpots and fumaroles, and more than half of the world’s active geysers. Nearly 150 species of fossil plants, ranging from small ferns and rushes up to large Sequoia and many other tree species, have been identified in the park’s abundant fossil deposits. The world’s largest recognized caldera (45 km by 75 km – 27 miles by 45 miles) is contained within the park….’.
The heritage site is contained in Wyoming (96%), in Montana(3%), and in Idaho(1%).
This is an important heritage site of Unesco that hopefully has preserved the essential geographical elements of the people who migrated to United States of America. The importance of the site lies in the fact that the accent of names of various popular terms is alive with their original home terms.
Wyoming’s original inhabitants include the Crow, Arapaho, Lakota and Shoshone. Scholars say that the name is derived from the Mun-See word xwé:wamənk meaning ‘at the big river flat’.
The Park contains the Yellow-Stone River; French trappers named the river as Roche Jaune. Historians claim that the human history of the park begins at least 11,000 years ago.
In Chinese, the Tsih River is called the Yellow River and its source was then in the Tsung-ling mountain(of Chinese pilgrims, Fa-hian and Hiouen Tsiang); some scholars also find this name as same as River Sita. The interesting story linked to this river is that its source was in the Milk Way and it was a river of the Middle Country; people linked with this river were the fan tribes who were also known as the fan-wei tribes. Tsung-ling mountain of the Chinese pilgrims is as same as Mt Meru(Mt Imaos) or Mt Sumeru. Wyo-ming refers to the Ming of the Chinese texts which refers to the people of fan tribe to which Fa-hian also belonged. Ming is Miga of Pali literature, and it refers to Migacira(name of a star), a park in Benares; it was an old name for Isipatnam(Isfahan of the Avesta). Wyo- seems to be the same as Hwo, a Chinese name a locality or ho-hwa, means country of the ‘water-lily’.
The Crow people were originally known as Kua or Koa which refers to the name of a ‘bird’; the English translation of this bird Kua is Crow; Koa was also name of a river(of Ptolemy); its source was in Mt Imaos. Other rivers which flew from this mountain were the River Indus, and Souastos, Bidaspes, Adris, Sandabal, and Bibases etc. According to Ptolemy river Koa joins the river Indus after receiving the river Souastos. Koa has its source in the eastern extremity of Paropanisus. Tue-chi or the Yue-ti people were living on the bank of the river Indus.
The tribal territory of the Crow includes Yellowstone National Park and the headwaters of the Riverback(E-chee-karsh-ah-shay-Elk-River) to the west, north to the Musselshell River, then northeast to the Yellowstone’s mouth at the Missouri River, then southeast to the confluence of the Yellowstone and the Powder Rivers(Bilap chashee-‘Powder River or ‘Ash River’), south along the South Fork of the Powder River, confined in the South-East by the Rattlesnake Mountains and the westwards in the South-West by the Wind River Range. Their tribal area included the river valleys of the Judith River(Buluhpa’ashe-‘Plum River’), Powder River, Tongue River, Big Horn River and Wind River as the Bighorn Mountains (Iisiaxpuatachee Isawaxaawuua), Pryor Mountains (Baahpuuo Isawaxaawuua), Wolf Mountain(Cheetiish—‘Wolf Teeth Mountain’) and Absaroka range(also called Abasalaga Mountains).
The Crow Indian Reservation lies in south-central Montana, and in primarily in Bi Horn, and Yellowstone counties with ceded lands in Rosebud, Carbon, and treasure counties.
The early home of the Crow-Hidatsa ancestral tribe was in the Ohio country, near Lake Erie.
The whole park region along with its defined river basins as it seems describe names of its peoples’ ancient homelands that forms compact region with the ancient Yellow River, the Indus River, and the Achiravati River where ancient Yue-Chi people were living. Here the Yue-chi(E-chee) people are being named as the Crow people.
Scholars see Apsaalooke as ‘crow’ or ‘raven’ people; for some others Apsaalooke means ‘children of the large beaked-bird’. Even the Hidatsa tribe people call the Crow in this name; Apsaa-looke refers to ‘Abhassara’ world; —looke means the ‘world of men’, and abhassara means the ‘Brahma-loka’ where live the radiant devas from whose body light is emitted. It is also called Rupa-loka of the Jinas(Zion). It is related to ‘Crow’ because once the Buddha was born as a ‘Baka’ means a ‘bird’ in abhassara.
The Crow were friendly with Nez Perce, Kutenai, Shoshone, Kiowa, and the Kiowa Apache because of their ancient closeness. They warred against the Shoshone bands called Bikkaashe; and they see Lakota and their allies, the Arapaho, and Cheyenne as their enemies because of their geographical situation; as horse breeders they faced tough rivalry from the Blackfoot Confederacy, Gros Ventre, Assiniboine, Pawnee, and Ute.
Idaho—Mt Idah/Mt Ita; it refers to the mountain where Aeneas was born(Mt Aden/Udyan/Uddiyan);
Montana—refers to hermitage of Sage Matanga/Mytelena/Maithili
Siouan—-Sona or the Gold carrying river
Dakota—Kota country in Dakshina or the south;
Ojibwe people—Ajivaka ascetics or the wandering ascetics;
Cree people—people of ‘Sri’;
Lake Winnipeg(in Manitoba)—
Cheyenne people— Chin people
Lakota—known as Sioux
Big Horn Mountain—-
Hidatsa—- Hydraetes river/ Harada bird
Bilap chashee- Powder River or ‘Ash River’
Big Horn River
Bighorn Mountains(Iisiaxpuatachee Isawaxaawuua)
Pryor Mountains(Baahpuuo Isawaxaawuua)
Wolf Mountain(Cheetiish—‘Wolf Teeth Mountain’)
Absaroka range(also called Abasalaga Mountinas)
Nehiyaw-Pawt—means Iron Confederacy;
Ashalaho—‘Many Lodges’, called Mountain Crow;
Binnéessiippeele — ‘Those Who Live Amongst the River Banks’; or River Crow’ also Ashshipite;
Ashshipíte— ‘The Black Lodges’;
Binnéessiippeele—or River Crow, split from the Hidatsa proper, according to tradition because of a dispute over a bison stomach. As a result, the Hidatsa called the Crow Gixaa-icca;
Gixáa-iccá—‘Those Who Pout Over Tripe’. This area was historically known as the Powder River Country. They sometimes travelled north up to the Milk River ;
Milk River—This identifies the Land of the Honey and the Milk of the Bible; Moab of the biblical narratives and Madhuvana of Indian puranas; it was the source of the Yellow River;
Eelalapito—Kicked In The Bellies, also called Ammitaalasshé;
Ammitaalasshé—‘Home Away From The Center’, that is, away from the Ashkuale;
Ashkúale – Mountain Crow; They claimed the area known as the Big Horn, from the Bighorn Mountains in the east to the Absaroka Range to the west, and south to the Wind River Range in northern Wyoming.
Bilapiluutche—‘Beaver Dries its Fur’;
Itchuuwaaóoshbishish—‘Red Plume (Feather) At The Temple’, better known as Is-she-u-huts-ki-tu / E-she-huns-ka or Long Hair;
Daxpitcheehísshish—in English known as Red Bear;
Déaxitchish—Déahĭtsĭśh(better known as Pretty Eagle;
Bacheeítche —local group leader;
Alaxchiiaahush — Alaxchíia Ahú (Many War Achievements’; in English Plenty Coups
Chíilaphuchissaaleesh—‘Buffalo Bull Facing The Wind’
Ashakée—-‘Owner Of The Lodges’ – principal chief / head chief, chief over all of the chiefs) of all three Crow (Apsáalooke) Bands, he promoted peace between the Crow and Shoshone and allied the Crow with the whites against the fighting Sioux and Cheyenne …. last traditionally elected.
Bull Chief—notable war chief (pipe carrier) against enemy Lakota, Nez Percés, Shoshone, and Piegan Blackfoot,
Daxpitchée Daasítchileetash—‘Bear Whose Heart Is Never Good’ or ‘Bad Heart Bear’;
Awé Kúalawaachish—‘Sits In The Middle Of The Land’ also known as Káamneewiash/Kam-Ne-But-Sa (‘Blood Woman’)
Iché Shipíte—better known by the English translation of this name as Blackfoot;
Daxpitcheehísshish—Red Bear of the Mountain Crow
Eelápuash—or Arapoosh (‘stomach ache’ or ‘Sore Belly’, often mistranslated in historical accounts as Rotten Belly;
Ashbacheeítche—‘Chief Of The Camp’ or band chief of the entire River Crow Band
Itchuuwaaóoshbishish—-Red Plume (Feather) At The Temple,
Chíischipaaliash—‘Twines His (Horse’s) Tail’ or ‘Rotten Tail’;
Itchúua Chíash—‘White Temple’ or Uuwatchiilapish (‘Iron Bull’; prominent warrior and after Chíischipaaliash second Bacheeítche (local group leader) of the River Crow.
Issaatxalúash—‘Two Leggings’ or Apitisée (‘Big (Whooping) Crane’; Bacheeítche—-local group leader of River Crow,
Peelatchiwaaxpáash—‘Raven’ or PédhitšhÎ-wahpášh (″Medicine Crow″); a prominent Bacheeítche (local group leader) of the Kicked In The Bellies,
Bíawacheeitchish—Woman Chief; (the English translation of her name and rank) or sometimes Barcheeampe(“Pine Leaf”, was a female Bacheeítche (“Good Men” or chief), …
Akkeekaahuush—‘Comes Toward The Near Bank’ ; together with her husband, Knife, she was a feared war leader against enemy tribes;
Biliíche Héeleelash—-‘Among The Willows’ ; well known female leader of bands against enemy Lakota,
The Nez Perce people, according to scholars, were Niimiipuu people, meaning ‘the walking people’ or ‘we, the people’. They lived on the Columbia River Plateau in the Pacific Northwest region of the USA after they were displaced from their homeland due to the Great Flood.
Niimiipuu—refers to Sage Nimi in whose name the dynasty of Nimi ruled at Mithila(Metis people); Nimi, was name of Bodhisattva born as King of Mithila in Videha country; Pali sources mention Nimmanarati as a class of devas or gods.
To consider Nez Perce as people of ‘pierced nose’ is wrong and non-historic; Mthila was neighbourly to Mt Ida and Lap-wai means Rupa-nai or Epirus of Greeks. Rupa Sari was the mother of Sariputta, the foremost follower of the Buddha.
Nez Perce’s believe in weyekin; the name refers to the goddess of Olakana or Olikana, the seat of worship of goddess Rumkuni, or Rumi; this goddess identifies the region of Latinia of Rome.
Lakota/Dakota calling Nez Perce as Watopala/Watopahlute is very surprising; the latter identifies Utpal, means ‘Lotus’; it is Ophir of the Bible. It identifies the ancient Babylon. Utpal was next to the seat of worship of Caspo or Sage Kasyapa on the bank of the Caspian Sea. It is still more surprising to see that Canoe people are considered as same as Watopala people. Canoe means ‘Kanhei’ or ‘Kanha’. This name refers to Sri Krishna of the Mahabharata. Canoe or Kanhei means a geographical landmass at See which connects it with the Sea. This is also called ‘kantha’(by Ptolemy) means ‘neck’; Bible calls it ‘shoulder’. it is completely incorrect to say that this means ‘Nasal Passage of the Canoe’(Watopa-pahlute) or ‘Nasal Passage of the Grass’(Wato-pahlute).
Chinook people—Chin people at Uruk/Arka
Clearwater River(Koos-Kai-Kai) in Idaho in Kamiah, outside of Lewston—
The Nez Perce territory covered parts of present-day Washington, Oregon, Montana, and Idaho, in an area surrounding the Snake (Wevikespe), Grande Ronde River, Salmon(Naco’s kuus)(Chinook salmon Water) and the Koos-Kia-Kia rivers; The tribal area extended from the Bitterroots in the east to the Blue Mountains in the west between latitudes 450 N and 470 N.
Snake—means ‘Naga’ or the people who lived in the region of Negev in ‘South’;
Wevikespe—Wevike-spe/Abhira people/Iberia of the Bible; –spe means ‘spada’ or ‘settlements’.
Ronde River—Rode /Rhodes/Rhadamanthys or Radha River
Naco’s kuus—Naka-Kusi means ‘Babylon’; naco means ‘swarga’ or ‘Heaven’; Kusi was the kingdom of Cush, and Heaven which was to the right hand of Nazorath was neighbourly to Utpal. River Ros was the limit.
Shoshoni were a historic group of people like other groups in America, who migrated to USA from the Susa or the seat of royal administration of the Sasanian or the Sasanides. They are considered as the fourth largest cultural group of the Native American tribes. After Wyoming and Idaho in the east and south respectively, they are seen in the northern and western side of Utah and also in eastern Nevada and Gosiute. They belonged to the ancient Naga or the Snake community. The Nagas identify themselves as people of the Negev(Newe) region in the ‘south’, so they werew followers of the Buddha. This defines their traditional outlook and it is linked with Paiute, means ‘Pei-to’ or the Tree of Wisdom, which goes with the enlightenment of the Buddha..
Scholars find Shoshone’s root in ‘sononi’; and this word carries wonderful history of its own which defines to a large extent the history of the ancient world. It is Senani, the royal shepherdic group of people who were ruling the ‘inhabited world’ from Magadha, the Megiddo of the Bible. King Bimbisara belonged to this clan. Senani was also name of the leader of a village in this name whose daughter Sujata offered the Buddha with rice-milk or khiri. The Buddha was also given the grass by the shepherd boys of this village on which the Buddha sat and meditated. So sosoni is not ‘grass’ but name of a shepherd group. Sosonis or Sosonees were not the Snake people but were followers of Muchukunda, the Snake king, who offered shelter to the Buddha from rain and cold during the time of his meditation by winding his body over the Buddha. Wonderful history of the ancient world is locked in the following names which shows with certainty from where the ancient migrants arrived in America and settled there who etymologically painted their new settlements: Guchundeka, Kuchuntikka, Tukkutikka, Tukudeka, Bo’ho’inee, Pohoini, Pohogwe, Sage Grass People, Sagebrush Butte People, Agaideka, Lemhi River Valley, Snake River, Doyahinee, Kammedeka, Kammitikka, Great Salt Lake, Hukunduka, Tukudeka, Dukundeka, Sawtooth Range, Yahandeka, Yahandika, Lower Boise, Payette, Wiser River, Kusiutta, Goshute, and the Great Salt Desert.
The ancient identity of the Araphao is hidden in the term Gens de Vache which identifies this tribe in this name as ‘followers’ of ‘Gens de Vache’; this means ‘ ‘Followers of Jina’ who is connected with ‘Vache’ ; the latter is the name of the mountain of Vajra or the Thunder. This is Blue Mountain, the seat of enlightenment of the Buddha.
Dakota call the Araphao as Mahpiyato or Maha-piya-to means Maha Piya Tathagata. The Buddha is addressed in this name ‘Mahapiyo’. But the local meaning is more interesting as it recognises the term with Blue Cloud Men. The Lakota and the Assiniboine call the Araphao as Mahpito tho means the Blue Sky People; both the terms used for the Araphao people shows that they were offspring of an Arahata means a Great Teacher. Araphao is Briah or Variha who were Great Teachers. Deborah of the Bible belonged to this class of Teachers. It seems these people are using corrupt Pali terms in their day to day life.
Word ‘Pawnee’ is used in case of a Great Liberator or a Great Teacher who guides in getting rid of sins and helping to attain moksha or salvation. The term iriiraraapuhu or iriira-raapuhu means ‘ayiri or enemy of ripu or sins/diseases etc.
The Araphao word Hinono’eino refers to the Hina-yana of the Buddhist sects; when they collectively refer to each other as Hinono’eiteen(etana), it does not mean Araphao Nation but to all those who are identified with Hinajana sect of the Buddhism. The Cheyenne term Hitanwo’iv or Hetanevoeo for Araphao does not mean ‘People of the Sky’ or the ‘Cloud people’. But it means this is ‘helpful’ or ‘they are helpful’ or ‘they are good advisers’.
The Caddo(Toniibeenenno’ or Toniibeeneseino) called the Araphao people as Detseka’yaa; it means the Araphao practice sorcery; this exactly defines the way of the Hinajana Buddhism. Detseka means desari/dakshak, also ‘able persons’ and ‘yaa’ means the Buddha or following the teachings of the Buddha.
The Northern Araphao called themselves as Nank’haanseine’nan or Nookhose’iinenno which identifies them with Nank-haan-seine’-nan and Nookho-se’iine’-nno; they are identified with ‘seine’-nan and seine-nno means the monk of San or Sana means Sankisya where the Buddha descended from the heaven means Babylon; most of the religious institutions go by this name to add sanctity to their names. Scholars find the meaning of these term as ‘White Sage men’. The Northern Araphao called their southern counterpart as Baantcline’nan or Bo’oociinenno which means ‘Baant-cline’-nan’ or Bo’oo-ciine-nno; here bante (in Pali) means ‘bhikshu’ or ‘monk’; both cline and ciine means the monk from Chin country. But Bo’oo means the Bo-Tree or the Tree of Wisdom. The term never meant ‘Red Willow Men’ as suggested. But the most interesting point on this Red Willow Men comes from the name of Aparhao or Bariah or Bariah which is the name of bark of a Tree; they used this bark as their cloth. Deborah of the Bible was using this bark. Colour of this bark is not exactly red but red mixed brown.
The Northern Araphao called their southern counterpart as Nawathi’neha or Noowunenno which scholars take it as the ‘Southerners’; the Northern Araphao were known as BSakuune’na or Bee’eekuunnenno means ‘blood-coup men’;
Nawathi’neha—-Nawa-thi’neha/New Member of Thinae/T’chin
Noowunenno—-Noowu-nenno/New –nenno(Nani, means woman-worshipper);
BSakuune’na—-BSakuu-nena/Bhikshu-nena (Nana, means man-worshipper)
Bee’eekuunnenno—- Bee’eekuun-nenno; Bee’eekuun means Bhikshuni or ‘Woman-Monk’.
In the name Lakota is preserved the truth of the ancient migration, and it is such a wonderful word in the map of humans’ journey into past that it is simply not a word but a document that touches many branches of academic knowledge. This word goes beyond the truth which UN’s document on Environment cannot reach. Meaning of Lakota dismisses the preserved insight in the idea of the Origin of Species by Darwin. This word when combines with other words like Dakota, James River, Buffalo, Blood Run, and Calf Woman, takes the combined meaning of these words to a divine plain where first occurred the deluge that displaced the people some of whom now find themselves described by historians as the Indigenous People of America in Dakota and elsewhere.
Lakota means ‘rakta’ or ‘blood’; Dakota means ‘dukha’ or ‘dukhad’ or ‘dukshita’ means ‘sorrow/sorrowful/sorry’, James means ‘Jama’ or ‘God of Death’, ‘Buffalo’ is animal of burden of God of Death, Red Stone River, and Calf Woman represent the exact location where the deluge happened and washed away its inhabitants that is the ‘Woman’s Country, the just at the other end of the sacred land of See/Si/Ci. Red Stone River pinpoints the Volcano near the seat of worship of God of Death to the east of the See Land near the Great Salt Sea of the Bible. .
Ancient migrants who arrived in USA after the deluge, and to whom historians called Native Americans, belonged to a defined geographical region of the ‘inhabited world’ ; their ancient identity as seen from their tribal names, Crow, Nez Perce, Shoshoni, Araphao, Cree, Metis, Inuit, Mandan, Kiowa, and Lakota etc. marks a single geographical zone for all of them from where they migrated.
The Blackfoot peoples of Piikani(Piegan), Kainaa(Bloods), and Siksi-kawa, along with the Tsuu Tina(Sarcee) people and the Atsina, A’aninin, or the Gros Venre people describe a close geographical pocket where the deluge happened and from where they were displaced due to natural disaster.
Teton Sioux or simply the Si-oux or Sri-arka where lies the Teton or the Tava-timsa or the Triveni. Thítȟuŋwaŋ is Thítȟ-uŋwaŋ means the tirtha or the sacred bathing-place at uŋwaŋ or aruna means ‘Sun’. This identifies with it both the Triveni and the Tava-timsha Heaven. The geographical clarity is revealed through the names of the seven bands’ or the seven sub-tribes of Lakota: Sichangu(Brule, Burned Thighs), Oglala(‘They Scatter Their Own’), Itazipcho(Sans Arc, Without Bows), Hunkpapha(‘End Village’), Mnikhowozu(Minicounjou, ‘Plant Near Water’), Sihasapa(‘Blackfeet, or Blackfoot), Oohenunpa(Two Kettles).
Mnikhowozu(Minicounjou)—This identifies the royal seat of Kanauj;
Sihasapa—–Siha means ‘Lion’; this was also a royal house at Sihapura; –sapa means ‘assembly’ or ‘sabha’;
Oohenunpa—This refers to the king of Rohan; –npa means ‘nrupa’ or ‘king’ and Oohenu refers to ‘Rohana’
Sichangu—-Sich-angu; Anga country referring to Sri-Chanda or the Moon Country;
Oglala—-Aggar country/Og Island
Itazipcho—Ita-zip-cho; Tazia or Tahia sacred place;
Hunkpapha—Hun-k-papha; Hun settlement
Piikani(Piegan)—Coil region or the region of Pika; Piegan means Bagha or the Tiger region;
Siksi-kawa—Sage Sikhi/ or Country of Mayura or the Peacock;
Tsuu Tina—Tyna or Tainos region; Tsuu refers to su or Sur region at See;
Atsina—Aswini ; one of the eight seats of worship of the primordial gods;
A’aninin—Ain or Anima region’Anima god
Gros Venre—Ghosa region of Bhor or Bhur or Vir people; region of festival
Waniyetu wowpi—or Vani-yetu–wo-wpi—vani means ‘speech’ or story; yetu means hetu or ‘from the mind’ or ‘from the memory’; wo-wpi means ‘api’ or ‘today’.
Saône—–Sayan, region of the Wise-people
Powder River—River Badr, or Badarika
Arvol—Urubela or Ur/Uru
Scholars are of the view that Winter Counts(Lakota: waniyetu wowpi) which is a pictorial calendars of events recorded on hides/paper by the Lakota people marks certain period of their early history and this throws light on their arrival in USA. The Battiste Good winter count records Lakota history back to 900 CE, when White Buffalo Woman gave the Lakota people the White Buffalo Calf Pipe.