On this heritage site, Unesco says, ‘Qal’at al-Bahrain is a typical tell-an artificial mound created by many successive layers of human occupation. This testifies to continuous human presence from about 2300 B.C. to the 16th c A.D’.
The site was the capital of the Dilmun civilization. Here qal’a means ‘fort’ that helps in identifying the settlement of the ancient Dilmun, Pali texts mention Bahiya as name of a country and Bahuna and Bharana as names of a monk and an army general. But this name Bahrain identifies its root in bhanna , a group of ancient followers who believed in ahetukavada, akiriyavada and nathikavada. Thus they formed a distinct social group whose settlement can be identified with ‘qal’a’ like killa of Mogul history. Coili or Koili also identifies the Koliyan’s seat of royal administration near which was Barahi Temple. This defines the region of Dhamilo or Delphi of the Greeks. Dilmun culture on which stress has been given by scholars to define its ancient status is seen through madbasa; the latter as it seems refers to either madhubaisya or madhava. As the term ‘tell’ is historically attached with this site, this signifies the meaning of ‘tell’ as ‘taila’ means ‘oil’ and madbasa as madhubaisya means the ‘trader’s community who were then dealing with oil business’. Tylos certainly pinpoints ‘tailika’ means ‘Oil traders’. Village Al Qalah identifies ancient Kahal village which is Koili and Baharana. Very interestingly Manama, the capital of Bahrain, is identified with Magna Mater, the goddess of Kahala or Al Qalah.